UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (24-10-2019)

upsc exam current affairs 24-10-2019

Highlights |UPSC Exam Current Affairs 24-10-2019

Current Affairs and News (24-10-2019)- The following article contains all the updated events and news for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.

  • Rabi crop MSP to be hiked
  • Air Quality Index (AQI), Ambient Air Quality Standards and SAFAR
  • ISRO’s PSLV missions
  • Peritoneal dialysis under Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Program (PMNDP)
  • 19th Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) summit
  • ‘Sycamore,’ Google’s Quantum Computer
  • India plans first-ever snow leopard survey
  • A ray of hope for the ozone layer
  • 25 years of National Family Health Survey (NFHS)

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UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (24-10-2019)

Rabi crop MSP to be hiked

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains II and III – Government policies; Economy; Farmer’s welfare; Agriculture

In news:

  • Association Cabinet chooses to climb the base help value (MSP) for rabi crops (for 2020-21 promoting season)
  • Viewed as one of the significant and dynamic strides towards multiplying ranchers’ salary by 2022 and improving ranchers’ welfare.

What do aspirants need to know for the exam?

  • What is MSP?
  • Who declares MSPs?
  • MSP List (i.e. crops secured under MSP)

Basics: Minimum Support Price (MSP)

  • It is a market mediation by the Government to safeguard horticultural makers against any sharp fall in ranch costs.
  • MSPs are declared by the Government of India based on the proposals of the Commission at Agricultural Costs and Costs (CACP).

Major objective –

  • Bolster the ranchers from trouble deals
  • To obtain nourishment grains for open appropriation

Crops covered

  • The government declares MSPs for 22 commanded harvests and reasonable and profitable value (FRP) for sugarcane.
  • The commanded harvests are 14 yields of the Kharif season, 6 rabi yields and two other business crops.
14 Kharif crops6 rabi crops2 commercial crops
1.      Paddy1. wheat1. jute
2.      Jowar2. barley2. copra
3.      Bajra3. gram
4.      Maize4. Masur(lentil)
5.      Ragi5. rapeseed/mustard
6.      Arhar6. safflower
7.      Moong
8.      Urad
9.      Groundnut-in-shell
10.  soybean
11.  sunflower
12.  sesamum
13.  Nigerseed
14.  cotton

Air Quality Index (AQI), Ambient Air Quality Standards and SAFAR

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains II and III – Government schemes and policies; Environment and Biodiversity; Pollution

National Air Quality Index’ (AQI)

  • Was propelled in 2014 to scatter data on air quality
  • Activity under Swachh Bharat Mission
  • The estimation of air quality depends on eight contaminations
  • AQI has six classifications of air quality. These are Good, Satisfactory, Moderately polluted, Poor, Very Poor and Severe.
  • AQI is considered as ‘One Number-One Color-One Description’ for the basic man to pass judgment on the air quality inside his region.

8 poisons estimated by AQI

  1. Ammonia (NH3),
  2. Carbon Monoxide (CO),
  3. Lead (Pb)
  4. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2),
  5. Ozone (O3),
  6. Particulate Matter (size less than 10 µm) or (PM10),
  7. Particulate Matter (size less than 2.5 µm) or (PM2.5), and
  8. Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

6 categories of air quality


National Ambient Air Quality Standards

  • National Ambient Air Quality Standards are the measures for encompassing air quality set by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)
  • The CPCB has been presented this force by the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.

Encompassing Air Quality Standards contains 12 contaminations (8 toxins contained in AQI and 4 others given underneath)

  1. Arsenic
  2. Benzene
  3. Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaP)
  4. Nickel

System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting And Research (SAFAR)

  • Activity presented by the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) to quantify the air nature of a metropolitan city
  • Indigenously created by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune and is operationalized by the India Meteorological Department (IMD).
  • It gives out a continuous air quality file on a 24×7 premise with shading coding (alongside 72 hours advance estimate).
  • SAFAR is an essential piece of India’s first Air Quality Early Warning System operational in Delhi.


  • increment mindfulness among the overall population with respect to the air quality in their city
  • causes the approach producers to create fitting moderation measures and precise activities

Pollutants monitored by SAFAR

  1. 5
  2. PM10
  3. Ozone
  4. Carbon Monoxide (CO)
  5. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
  6. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
  7. Benzene
  8. Toluene
  9. Xylene
  10. Mercury

ISRO’s PSLV missions

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains III – Economy; Science and Technology; Space; India’s achievement in Science and Technology

In news:

  • ISRO sacks orders from four universal clients
  • 3 PSLV missions – C47, C48, and C49 – booked to dispatch in November and December 2019 from the Satish Dhawan Space Center


Advantages from Launching of Foreign Satellites

  • Diminishes the expense of propelling Indian satellites alongside other outside satellites.
  • Aides in the development of room area.
  • Business age.
  • Has prompted New Space new companies.

Do you know?

  • India stepped into space business with National Space India Limited, which will be the new advertisement arm of the branch of room.
  • The NSIL will help support the commercialization of India’s space look into.

Value Additions

Differences between GSLV and PSLV

  • Both PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) and GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) are the satellite-dispatch vehicles (rockets) created by ISRO.
  • PSLV is structured essentially to convey the “earth-perception” or “remote-detecting” satellites with a lift-off mass of up to around 1750 Kg to Sun-Synchronous round polar circles of 600-900 Km elevation.
  • The GSLV is structured essentially to convey the correspondence satellites to the exceptionally curved (normally 250 x 36000 Km) Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO).
  • The satellite in GTO is additionally raised to its last goal, viz., Geosynchronous Earth circle (GEO) of around 36000 Km elevation (and zero deg tendency on tropical plane) by terminating its in-based onboard motors.

Peritoneal dialysis under Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Program (PMNDP)

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains II – Government schemes and programs; Health issue; Social/Welfare issue

In news:

  • Government to give kidney dialysis at home under PMNDP.
  • At the end of the day, the Center intends to set up peritoneal dialysis benefits crosswise over states to give entryway step dialysis administrations to kidney patients.


With locally situated peritoneal dialysis administration, the Center tries to –

  • cut down the general expense of treatment
  • accomplish value intolerant access
  • acquire consistency of training
  • build up a clinically-protected and compelling project

Do you know?

  • Consistently about 2.2 Lakh new patients of End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) get included in India bringing about extra interest for 3.4 Crore dialysis consistently.
  • ESRD keeps on being a consequence of the existing and rising weight of non-transferable infection.
  • The weight of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) has been alarmingly expanding and was hailed in the extraordinary UN show for Health.

What do competitors need to know for the test?

  • What is Peritoneal dialysis?
  • About PMNDP conspire

Peritoneal dialysis

  • Peritoneal dialysis is a procedure to evacuate overabundance liquid, right electrolyte issues and expel poisons utilizing the coating of the belly, or peritoneum, in patients experiencing renal disappointment.

About Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Program

  • It was turned out in 2016 as a major aspect of the National Health Mission(NHM) for the arrangement of free dialysis administrations to poor people.

Nineteenth Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) summit

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains II – India and the World; International Relations

In news:

  • Nineteenth Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) summit to be held in Baku, Azerbaijan.
  • PM Modi skips NAM summit once more (for second time)
  • PM’s nonappearance demonstrates an unequivocal move away from past training at the 60-year-old association that India was an establishing individual from.

Do you know?

  • VP M. Venkaiah Naidu will speak to India at the nineteenth NAM summit.
  • eighteenth NAM Summit (which was held in Venezuela) was spoken to by Vice-President Hamid Ansari.
  • Since NAM was initiated in 1961, the Indian Prime Minister has constantly gone to the NAM summit, aside from in 1979, when Chaudhury Charan Singh was the guardian PM and subsequently missed it, and in 2016.

What do aspirants need to know for the exam?

  • NAM-over a wide span of time
  • Five standards of NAM
  • NAM: Policies and philosophy

NAM: Background

  • The Non-Aligned Movement is a Movement of 115 individuals speaking to the interests and needs of creating nations and against indiscriminately following any force obstruct during the virus war period.
  • NAM was a consequence of the war between the two squares during the virus war.
  • The development started with the “Bandung Process” in 1956 by India, Indonesia, previous Yugoslavia, Egypt, and different nations.
  • The first gathering of the NAM was held in Belgrade in 1961 by Yugoslavia.

Five standards of NAM

  1. Common regard for one another’s regional trustworthiness and power.
  2. Shared non-animosity.
  3. Shared non-impedance in local issues.
  4. Balance and common advantage.
  5. Serene concurrence.

Approaches and belief system:

  • The Non-Aligned Movement is brought together by its pronounced duty to world harmony and security.
  • The Non-Aligned Movement embraces approaches and practices of collaboration, particularly those that are multilateral and give common advantage to each one of those included.
  • The Non-Aligned Movement has assumed a significant job in different ideological clashes all through its reality, including extraordinary resistance to politically-sanctioned racial segregation governments and backing of guerrilla developments in different areas, including Rhodesia and South Africa.
  • The Non-Aligned Movement has become a voice of help for issues confronting creating countries despite everything it contains beliefs that are really inside this unique situation.

NAM: Present situation

  • India, which clung to non-arrangement as its global character since image Independence, gradually veered off from it after the enormous LPG changes, 1991.
  • Since the finish of the Cold War and the conventional finish of imperialism, the Non-Aligned Movement has been compelled to rethink itself and reexamine its motivation in the present world framework.
  • India never again needs to be disconnected from the western force alliances.
  • India needs its voice to be heard at a worldwide level.
  • Be that as it may, India still keeps up that “It stays focused on the standards and goals of the Non-Aligned Movement”.


‘Sycamore,’ Google’s Quantum Computer

Part of: GS Prelims – Science and Technology

In news:

  • Researchers have at long last professed to arrive at quantum amazingness, a milestone in an industry that could change the world.
  • A group of specialists taking a shot at Google’s Sycamore machine said their quantum framework had executed a figuring in 200 seconds that would have taken a great PC 10,000 years to finish.

India plans first-ever snow leopard survey

Part of: GS Prelims – Animal Conservation; Environment and Biodiversity

In news:

  • India to commission it’s first-historically speaking study to gauge the populace and topographical scope of the snow panther.

About Snow Leopard:

  • The snow panther is a huge feline local to the mountain slopes of Central and South Asia.
  • Snow panthers occupy high and subalpine zones at heights from 3,000 to 4,500 m (9,800 to 14,800 ft).
  • The snow panther is found along the upper spans of the Himalayan range and, in India, it is accounted for to have a nearness in Kashmir, Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh.

Do you know?

  • The snow panther is found in 12 nations — India, Nepal, Bhutan, China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
  • IUCN Status: Vulnerable
  • Global Snow Leopard and Ecosystem Protection (GSLEP) program is being sorted out by the Union Environment Ministry.



TOPIC: General Studies 3:

  • Protection, natural contamination, and debasement, ecological effect evaluation

A ray of hope for the ozone layer


  • During September and October, the ozone opening over the Antarctic has been the littlest seen since 1982, NASA and US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) researchers have detailed.
  • The yearly ozone opening arrived at its pinnacle degree of 16. 4 million sq km on September 8, at that point shrank to under 10 million sq km for the rest of September and October, satellite estimations appear.
  • NASA has portrayed it as incredible news for the Southern Hemisphere.



  • In 1985, Joe Farman, Brian Gardiner, and Jonathan Shanklin detailed unexpected and enormous abatements in stratospheric ozone levels over the Antarctic.
  • ozone levels started dropping in the austral spring a long time around the late 1970s.
  • By 1984, the stratospheric ozone layer over Halley in October was uniquely around 66% as thick as that seen in before decades — a marvel that got known as the Antarctic ozone opening.
  • Farman recommended a connect to human utilization of mixes called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), frequently utilized in vaporized jars and cooling gadgets, for example, ice chests.
  • Their discoveries changed the fields of air science and synthetic energy and prompted worldwide changes in the natural approach.


  • Ozone consumption has produced overall worry over expanded disease dangers and other negative impacts.
  • The ozone layer averts the most unsafe UV wavelengths of bright light (UV light) from going through the Earth’s air. These wavelengths cause skin malignancy, burn from the sun and waterfalls, which were anticipated to increment significantly because of diminishing ozone, just as hurting plants and creatures.
  • These worries prompted the reception of the Montreal Protocol in 1987, which bans the creation of CFCs, halons and other ozone-exhausting chemicals. (amend Kaigili 2016 included HFC)

Effect of Policy:

  • The boycott happened in 1989.
  • Ozone levels balanced out by the mid-1990s and started to recoup during the 2000s.
  • The ozone opening is required to reach pre-1980 levels by around 2075.
  • The Montreal Protocol is viewed as the best universal ecological consent to date

Science behind ozone formation:

  • Three structures (or allotropes) of oxygen are engaged with the ozone-oxygen cycle: oxygen iotas (O or nuclear oxygen), oxygen gas (O2 or diatomic oxygen), and ozone gas (O3 or triatomic oxygen).
  • Ozone is framed in the stratosphere when oxygen particles photograph separately in the wake of retaining bright photons. This believer a solitary O2 into two nuclear oxygen radicals.
  • The nuclear oxygen radicals at that point consolidate with independent O2 particles to make two O3
  • These ozone particles assimilate bright (UV) light, after which ozone parts into an atom of O2 and an oxygen iota.
  • The oxygen particle at that point gets together with an oxygen atom to recover ozone.
  • This is a proceeding with the process that ends when an oxygen iota recombines with an ozone atom to make two O2
  • The aggregate sum of ozone in the stratosphere is dictated by a harmony between photochemical generation and recombination.

OZONE depletion:

  • Ozone can be pulverized by various free extreme impetuses; the most significant are the hydroxyl radical (OH·), nitric oxide radical (NO·), chlorine radical (Cl·) and bromine radical (Br·).
  • particularly chlorofluorocarbons, which can make a trip to the stratosphere without being obliterated in the troposphere because of their low reactivity.
  • Once in the stratosphere, the Cl and Br molecules are discharged from the parent mixes by the activity of bright light.
  • Ozone is a profoundly receptive atom that effectively lessens to the more steady oxygen structure with the help of an impetus. Cl and Br iotas pulverize ozone atoms through an assortment of synergist cycles. In the easiest case of such a cycle, a chlorine iota responds with an ozone particle (O3), taking an oxygen particle to shape chlorine monoxide (ClO) and leaving an oxygen atom (O2).
  • The ClO can respond with a second particle of ozone, discharging the chlorine iota and yielding two atoms of oxygen.
  • A solitary chlorine iota would consistently annihilate ozone (in this way an impetus) for as long as two years (the time scale for transport down to the troposphere) were it not for responses that expel them from this cycle by framing supply species, for example, hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine nitrate


Why it’s small this year?

  • There have been anomalous climate designs in the air over Antarctica.
  • In hotter temperatures like this year, less polar stratospheric mists structure and they don’t endure as long, constraining the ozone-consumption process.
  • While it is uplifting news, NASA has forewarned perceive that what we are seeing this year is certainly not a sign that climatic ozone is abruptly on a most optimized plan of attack to recuperation.


  • We should guarantee that our advancement objectives are practical and don’t block this development. Our future relies upon it.

Connecting the dots:

  • The magnificence of settlements, for example, Montreal is that the onus of consistency stays on the nation while the ecological impacts stay worldwide, pushing nations to give a valiant effort. Justify.
  • Endeavors to supplant synthetic compounds with less hurtful ones like hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have started to pay off. Prove.


TOPIC: General Studies 2:

  • Issues identifying with improvement and the executives of Social Sector/Services identifying with Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues identifying with destitution and craving.
  • Significant parts of administration, straightforwardness and responsibility, e administration applications, models, victories, confinements, and potential; residents sanctions, straightforwardness, and responsibility, and institutional and different measures.

25 years of National Family Health Survey (NFHS)


  • The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) is an enormous scale, multi-round review led in an agent test of families all through India.
  • Global Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) is nodal organization.
  • Financed by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) {United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) support}

First  National Family Health Survey (NFHS-1):

  • Directed in 1992-93.
  • The study gathered broad data on populace, wellbeing, and sustenance, with an accentuation on ladies and small kids.
  • The Second National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2)

The Second National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2)

  • Directed in 1998-99
  • included highlights the nature of wellbeing and family arranging administrations, abusive behavior at home, conceptive wellbeing, paleness, the nourishment of ladies, and the status of ladies.

The Third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3)

  • done in 2005-2006.
  • The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) and the National AIDS Research Institute (NARI) are giving specialized help to the HIV segment.

The Fourth National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4)

  • was done in 2014-2015.
  • The first of the NFHS arrangement that gathers information in every one of India’s 29 States and each of the 7 Union Territories.
  • Additionally, NFHS-4, just because, will give assessments of most pointers at the local level

Salient findings of NFHS-4:

  • Fewer kids are kicking the bucket in earliest stages and early adolescence – (51 passings for every 1,000 live births)
  • Newborn child death rates run from a low of 10 in Andaman and Nicobar Islands to a high of 51 passings for every 1000 live births in Madhya Pradesh. (inconstancy)
  • Better consideration for ladies during pregnancy and labor adds to decrease of maternal passings and improved youngster endurance
  • Practically all moms have gotten antenatal consideration for their latest pregnancy
  • An ever-increasing number of ladies presently conceive an offspring in human services offices and rates have dramatically increased in certain States in the most recent decade. (9 out of 10 in certain states)
  • The all-out ripeness rates, or the normal number of kids per lady, extend from 1.2 in Sikkim to 3.4 in Bihar.
  • Full vaccination inclusion among kids age 12-23 months fluctuates generally (At least 6 out of 10 youngsters have gotten full inoculation in 12 of the 15 States/Union Territories).
  • There has been an expansion in the utilization of current family arranging strategies just in the States of Meghalaya, Haryana, and West Bengal. The decrease is most noteworthy in Goa pursued by Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
  • Fewer youngsters under five years old are currently seen as stunted(previous study, it is discovered that in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Meghalaya over 40% of kids are hindered)
  • Squandering is still extremely high by universal gauges in the entirety of the States/Union Territories.
  • Iron deficiency has additionally declined, yet at the same time stays broad.
  • Over-sustenance keeps on being a medical problem for grown-ups.
  • More than 66% of family units in each State/Union Territory approach an improved wellspring of drinking water, and over 90% of families approach an improved wellspring of drinking water
  • Over half of family units approach improved sanitation offices
  • Utilization of clean cooking fuel, which lessens the danger of respiratory sickness and contamination, changes broadly among (18% of families in Bihar to over 70% of family units in Tamil Nadu and over 80% of family units in Puducherry and Goa)
  • Absence of HIV mindfulness in Indian grown-ups – Nearly 82 % ladies and almost 70 % men in the 13 States needed far-reaching information on HIV/AIDS and safe sex rehearses.
  • Tobacco use among men has tumbled from 50 percent in 2005-06 to 47 percent in 2015.
  • Liquor utilization among men has tumbled from 38 percent to 34 percent.


  • Troubles in getting solid, excellent information


  • Set practical objectives and utilize innovative procedures.
  • Adjust to changing institutional and innovative conditions for information assortment.


  • This is the information that aides the arrangements influencing a large number of Indians and must be dependably gathered.
  • Except if we give methodical consideration to the information framework, we are probably going to have the national talk captured by low-quality information as has occurred in the past with an estimation of destitution or conflicting information on GDP.

Also read: Link 1:

Connecting the dots:

  • Could India’s current information framework bolster great information assortment or in the case of weakening information quality will lead proof-based approach advancement adrift? Look at.


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in the comment section)


  • Featured Comments and comments Up-voted by whataftercollege are the “correct answers”.

Q.1) MSP is a form of agricultural market intervention undertaken by the Central Government in order to insure agricultural producers are protected against any sharp fall in farm prices. Which of the following statements are correct regarding MSP?

  1. It is announced for all the crops by Central Government prior to the sowing season.
  2. Its purpose is to incentivize cultivators to adopt modern technology and raise productivity and overall production in line with the emerging demand pattern in the country.
  3. The Prices are decided by Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA).

Select the code from the following:

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. All of the above

Q.2) Which of the following are the objectives of the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP)?

  1. To stabilize agricultural prices.
  2. To ensure meaningful real income levels to the farmers.
  3. To protect the interest of the consumers by providing essential agricultural commodities at reasonable rates through the public distribution system.

Choose the correct option:

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 3 only

Q.3) Assertion (A):  The market price of a crop does not fall below its minimum support price (MSP).

Reason (R): Minimum support price (MSP) is the price at which the government guarantees to buy an unlimited quantity of an agricultural commodity.

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A
  3. A is true but R is false
  4. A is false but R is true

Q.4) Which of the following are Rabi crops?

  1. Rice
  2. Maize
  3. Wheat
  4. Barley

Select the correct code:

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 3 and 4
  3. 2 and 3
  4. 1 and 4

Q.5) Which of the following statement [s] is/are correct with reference to India’s Air Quality Index (AQI)?

  1. The index is launched under Swacch Bharat Abhiyan
  2. PM10, PM 2.5 and Lead are considered in calculating the value of Air Quality Index
  3. Both the Central Pollution Control Board and the State Pollution Control Board administer the National Air Monitoring Program

Choose the appropriate code

  1. 2 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 1, 2 and 3
  4. None of the above

Q.6) Which among the following atmospheric gases are normally considered in calculating the value of the Air Quality Index in India?

  1. Carbon dioxide
  2. Carbon monoxide
  3. Nitrogen dioxide
  4. Sulfur dioxide
  5. Methane

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 1, 4 and 5 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Q.7) Government of India has introduced the SAFAR system in important metropolitan cities of India for

  1. Forecasting the condition of roads in different weather
  2. Providing precise Indian navigation system
  3. Providing location-specific information on air quality in near real-time
  4. Providing details of tourist places and hotels in and near the cities

Q.8) Consider the following statements about The Global Snow Leopard and Ecosystem Protection Program (GSLEP)

  1. It is the world’s first joint initiative that aims to conserve the snow leopard.
  2. All 12 snow leopard range countries are a part of this initiative.
  3. The initiative aims to secure at least 20 snow leopard landscapes by 2020.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 1 and 3
  3. 2 and 3
  4. 1,2 and 3

Q.9) Consider the following statements about ‘Snow Leopard’

  1. It is listed as ‘Endangered’ on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
  2. Brazzaville declaration deals with the Conservation of the Snow Leopard
  3. It is protected under Schedule 1 of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972

Select the correct statements

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 3 Only

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